Archivo mensual: septiembre 2009

Cuenta del Programa Anillo sobre Políticas de Educación Superior

Al cumplir su primer año de funcionamieto, el Programa Anillo (SOC01) sobre Políticas de Educación Superior –en el cual participan las Universidades Alberto Hurtado, de Talca, Nacional Andrés Bello y Diego Portales, donde tiene su sede principal– da cuenta al CONICYT de sus avances y producción, así como de las lecciones aprendidas durante este período.
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Executive Summary
The present document reports the first year activities of the Anillo Program (SOC01) on Higher Education Policy.
The Anillo Program is an associate and collaborative endeavor among Alberto Hurtado University, the University of Talca, Andres Bello University and Diego Portales University. The Program is located in the Center for Comparative Educational Policies (Centro de Políticas Comparadas de Educación, CPCE) at the Diego Portales University, Santiago with the backing of the four member universities.
This report includes those activities which have been directly undertaken as part of the Anillo Program – that is the nucleus of principal and associate researchers and participating young researchers – in research, teaching, training, international and national networking, the diffusion and transfer of knowledge as well as the sum of other joint activities in the field of higher education policy that have been indirectly supported. For the Anillo Program not only undertakes research, teaching and intervention – as described in the original proposal – but acts as a catalyst for closely associated activities by promoting spin offs, new concepts and projects, further initiatives and the opportunity to coordinate and maximize activities.
The Program researchers are José Joaquín Brunner, PhD, Director; Andrés Bernasconi, PhD, Principal Researcher; Juan Pablo Prieto, PhD, Principal Researcher; Oscar Espinoza, PhD, Associate Researcher; Enrique Fernandez, PhD, Associate Researcher; Manuel Krauskopf, PhD, Associate Researcher; Felipe Salazar, economist, Assistant Researcher and Judith Scheele, MA, Assistant Researcher.
Having completed its first year, the Anillo Program is now in full development. As a result, for the first time in Chile there is now an inter-institutional and interdisciplinary nucleus of specialized researchers working together in the field of higher education. This nucleus is composed of eight researchers (principals, associates and assistants) belonging to the four member universities. In addition, between September 2008 and September 2009 four senior researchers and around ten assistant researchers and research support staffs have become involved in various Program related activities.
The research undertaken in the first year of the project covers three areas; (i) Institutions and public regulations in mixed competitive higher education systems; (ii) Policies to stimulate and help institutional capacity building; (iii) Quality control processes and procedures in mixed and competitive higher education systems. In each of these areas there are various research-lines and projects, which are staffed by Program‟s researchers (Section IV).
During the last twelve months they have published –either as authors, coauthors or editors– three books, sixteen book chapters, twenty articles in peer reviewed journals, as well as many other more general publications for diffusion and knowledge transfer as noted below.
The Program‟s publications seek to advance specialized knowledge about the Chilean tertiary education system through a multidisciplinary and comparative focus with the purpose of disseminating and transferring knowledge to help in the formulation and design of public policies and its informed reflection and deliberation. Together, these publications cover the system‟s most important features pertinent for public policy in Chile. These are:
 Institutions, regulations and finance
 System governance and institutions
 Institutional strategies and organizational management
 Development of the academic profession and graduate studies
 Information, indicators and quality assurance.
It is worth pointing out that Program research results have been published not only in Chile but also in Germany, Brazil, Spain, the United States, the Netherlands and various international journals. In addition, during its first year, the Program has enlisted higher education researchers from other (non-member) institutions in three ways:
(i) A monthly workshop for presentations and discussions about research in progress;
(ii) A national congress for higher education researchers which will take place in October 2009;
(iii) A multi-authored book, edited by Program researchers, with articles by leaders in higher education institutions and academic experts.
The Anillo Program‟s strong collaborative environment has led to the development of various cooperative activities as part of its knowledge management undertakings (i.e. joint production, transfer, application, and evaluation of knowledge) with the main national public agencies, namely, the Higher Education Division of the Ministry of Education; the National Council of Education, and the National Accreditation Commission. As well as those activities involving the member universities, there have been different kinds of joint activities with at least 20 other higher education institutions in Chile. In brief, the Program is an active participant in national knowledge networks linked to higher education.
In terms of external cooperation, the Program has undertaken different initiatives (Section VII) with three associated centers: the Institut für Hochschulforschung Wittenberg an der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Germany; the Centre for Higher Education Management Studies at the Polytechnic University, Valencia, Spain, and the Comparative and International Education Policy Program (CIEPP) at the State University of New York (Albany) USA. Program researchers participated also in various collaborative initiatives with the Grupo Faro, based in Quito and the Fundación Ecuador; the National University of Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina; the National Autonomous University of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico; the Catholic University of Guayquil, Ecuador, and with the OECD, the World Bank, Global Initiative for Quality Assurance Capacity (GIQAC), the Colombus Program, Boston College, the Ministry of Education in Argentina, and the Department of Latin American Studies (TCLA) of Leiden University, the Netherlands. Through an agreement reached with this last university the Anillo Program will participate in the training of doctoral students within the field of higher education. These different international initiatives are described fully in appropriate sections of this report.
During this first year Anillo Program members have taught courses about higher education policy in various Masters programs given by participating and non-member institutions. This module was taught in MA programs at the University of La Frontera, the University of Chile (Industrial Engineering Department) and the Alberto Hurtado University for a total of 50 students.
During this same period Program researchers have guided 6 Masters theses and one doctoral thesis in different Chilean and foreign universities. Member institutions are also involved in training activities for leading personnel responsible for university management on issues such as research management and curricular innovation and reform, with the attendance of university management personnel. A training course for leading university executives was also given at the Autonomous University of Yucatan, in Merida, Mexico.
The principal outreach method for the scientific community has been, first, that of academic publications, listed in the Appendix and by the Bulletin of Higher Education Policies, which published five issues in the program’s first year. It is electronically distributed to over two thousand interested people in government agencies, parliament, university leaders, academics, non-governmental organizations, business organizations, and mass communications.
Second, four issues of the Bulletin, which synthesizes the results of international research in the higher education field, have been published.
Third, program researchers participate on a regular basis in different academic meetings.
The Anillo Program is also involved in the diffusion of information and ideas to non-specialist publics through various types of extension activities. For example, the Program’s Director has published over one hundred posts dealing with the analysis of and reflections about higher education issues in his academic blog (, while the Program‟s own site ( provides timely information about its research, publications and the activities of researchers, who have in addition gave more than 50 public interviews to the press, radio and television about higher education topics.
In terms of outreach and applied knowledge, the Program has used all the different procedures and instruments originally envisaged in its proposal. The following should be briefly mentioned (for more information see Section IX):
 Synthesis of research results and recommendations. Four working documents were produced during the first year: (i) Tertiary education and the labor market – review of the international literature; (ii) Doctoral education in the sciences and engineering in developed countries – recent evolution and perspectives; (iii) Quality assurance in non university tertiary education – an analysis of evaluation mechanisms in OECD countries; (iv) Accreditation processes – information and indicators: an analysis of the international literature. These publications are addressed to public policy and decision makers; boards and leaders of higher education institutions (HEIs), and the media.
 Public Policy Bulletin of Higher Education Policies. An e-Bulletin is circulated on a bi-monthly basis to registered public leaders, boards of HEIs, national researchers‟ networks, relevant private organizations, and media. To date five numbers have been published dealing with the following issues: Contemporary debate about higher education policy; Management of the academic profession; Access, inclusion and equity in university entrance; Performance contracts and strategic planning. These are available at
 Academic publications in specialized journals, books and book chapters. The public here is national and international (specialized) research networks and the academic community at large. These are set out in more detail in section IV in this report and the relevant Appendix provides a detailed list.
 Opinion columns in the media (print and electronic) are intended to inform and whenever possible to influence discussions about the public agenda in higher education and to participate in these discussions. Various Program members actively take part in the public sphere.
 Leadership development for higher education policy through workshops on higher education policy and management for public sector and HEI personnel in executive positions. Two workshops were organized addressing issues about research management and curricular reform.
 Support for publishing activities through the Program‟s site, so allowing external researchers to present working papers and to be published after peer review. These are to be found at the Program‟s web page; in the near future, the presentations at the first Congress of Higher Education Researchers, which is being organized by the Anillo Program, will be published.
 Communication with public leaders of select public agencies to define working issues and priorities. The program and its members have maintained close ties with the principal agencies in the sector and gained various research contracts as noted in the appropriate sections of this report.
 International networks: transfer of ideas, knowledge and policy innovations through exchanges with associated centers and participation in international events, consulting & advisory services. As noted above, the program has active agreements with many institutions in Latin America, the USA and Europe, as well as collaborative projects, academic interchanges and advisory services and consultancies.
 Platform for collaborative projects through alliances with associated centers and utilization of foreign external consultants to ensure the Program‟s sustainability and strengthen its endogenous capacities. In this area, the principal success has been to develop a platform for international collaboration and to reach agreement with the Department of Latin American Studies at Leiden University to develop a joint program for doctoral training in the field of higher education studies.


Manuel Castells: Premio Nacional (España) de Sociología

Manuel Castells (en la foto), nacido en Albacete, 1942, publicó su primer libro en 1972, La Question Urbaine, que ha sido traducido a diez idiomas y ya forma parte de los clásicos de su disciplina. Con este trabajo se convirtió en uno de los fundadores de la llamada Nueva Sociología Urbana, haciendo numerosas contribuciones importantes en este campo a lo largo de los 10 años siguientes (especialmente los libros The City and the Grassroots y The Informational City).
A comienzos de los años ochenta, Castells emprendió el estudio de las transformaciones económicas y sociales emparejadas a la última revolución tecnológica, la sociedad de la información, empleando en ello una amplia perspectiva comparada que abarca sociedades de tres continentes. La trilogía The Information Age, aparecida entre 1996 y 1998 es el producto fundamental de esas investigaciones (Los tres libros han sido publicados en España con los títulos de La sociedad red, El poder de la identidad y Fin de Milenio).
Esta obra, única por su ambición en la sociología contemporánea, ha sido recibida inmediatamente como un clásico y ya ha sido traducida a 20 idiomas (a la mayoría de las grandes lenguas europeas, además de al chino, japonés, indonesio, parsi, árabe…). Su último libro es una obra colectiva titulada Mobile Communication and Society: A Global Perspective.
El Jurado ha puesto de manifiesto la proyección internacional del premiado así como su capacidad de innovación. Manuel Castells es autor de 20 libros, ha participado como coautor en otros 21 y ha publicado más de un centenar de artículos científicos en revistas académicas o en libros colectivos. Ha escrito sus obras en inglés, francés y castellano y ha sido profesor de diversas universidades de Europa, América y Asia. En su web se puede encontrar su historia académica y profesional.
Los miembros del Jurado fueron la Presidenta del CIS, Belén Barreiro Pérez-Pardo y los investigadores y profesores José María Maravall Herrero, Jesús Leal Maldonado, Luisa Carlota Solé Puig, Rodolfo Gutiérrez Palacios, Marina Subirats Martoni y Ludolfo Paramio Rodrigo.
La Factoría, 29 septiembre 2009
Manuel Castells es un gran amigo de Chile y de muchos de sus c olegas chilenos quienes lo felicitamos con todo nuestro afecto desde la distancia por este Premio.
Recursos asociados
Artículos publicados por Castells en La Factoría, ver aquí
Presencia de Castells en este Blog, ver aquí

Hace 100 años: Visita de Freud a Universidad de los Estados Unidos

Artículo que cuenta la visita de S. Freud a una pequeña universidad norteamericano justo hace 100 años, sus conferencias y otros apsectos de su viaje y estadía.
Otros artículos sobre Freud en este Blog:
Freud en las universidades de los E.E.U.U.
El status del psicoanálisis en la academia británica
freud_215.jpg When Freud Came to America
By Russell Jacoby, The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 21, 2009.
One hundred years ago, Sigmund Freud arrived in the United States on his first and only visit. As the George Washington pulled into New York Harbor, he supposedly remarked to Carl Jung, who accompanied him, “They don’t realize that we are bringing them the plague.” His more vociferous contemporary critics would probably agree.
Freud came to deliver five lectures over five days in September 1909 at Clark University. Its president, G. Stanley Hall, had invited a number of leading thinkers to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Clark. Clark? For our rank-obsessed society, that might seem surprising. Not Chicago or Princeton or Columbia but a small Massachusetts university with just 16 faculty members had invited one of the pivotal thinkers of the 20th century. Indeed, William James came over from Harvard to listen to the lectures. Perhaps we overlook the role of the smaller and less flashy schools in American cultural life. Twenty-four years later a small outfit on West 12th Street in Manhattan hired many more refugees from Nazism than more celebrated institutions. In its housing of exiled scholars, the New School far eclipsed grander universities.
Perhaps the balance of wealth in the early part of the century was not as skewed as it is nowadays; or at least Hall’s invitation to Freud opens a small window into a neglected question of the economics of writing and lecturing. Hall first offered Freud an “honorarium” of $400 to cover expenses to lecture in July. Freud declined because he would lose too much income by canceling three weeks of private consultations. Hall upped the honorarium to $750, and the lectures were shifted to September, when Freud had no appointments.
An honorarium of $750 is roughly in the league of what might be paid a professor nowadays to fly across the country and give a lecture, if he or she is lucky. Of course a 1909 greenback is not a 2009 greenback. Various indexes exist to update past prices. Readjusted in current dollars, $750 in 1909 computes out to something between $18,000 and $36,000 in 2009—not a bad piece of change! Few writers or professors would turn down an offer nowadays to give some lectures if the invitation came with a $20,000 honorarium. The amount not only suggests the relative wealth of Clark—Hall had $10,000, or half a million in current dollars, to spend on the anniversary—but the generous remuneration for independent lectures in the early part of the 20th century.
Freud spoke off the cuff from notes to a good crowd. Yet contemporary observers of the Clark lectures did not mention what today would be extraordinary. Freud spoke in German with no translation provided. Today if Jürgen Habermas lectured in German at an American university, the audience could comfortably sit around a small table. But a century ago, a series of lectures in German neither diminished the audience nor elicited disapproval. In 1909 advanced study usually meant study in Germany. It was assumed the professoriate knew German. Today the opposite is true. That might not be a reason for dismay, if other languages have replaced German, but that has not happened. The din about globalization evades the reality of the decline of serious language study among American students. Globalization spells “English Spoken Here.”
Freud suspected that American prudishness would curtail the reception of his ideas. I think, he wrote to Jung before they departed, that once the Americans “discover the sexual core of our psychological theories they will drop us.” Later critics of Freud, especially feminist critics, forget to what extent he showed up as a militant sexual reformer. He wanted to be able to talk about sexual desire and liberalize sexual practices. He made no effort to mute that message. Freud’s five lectures closed with a call to allow greater sexual freedom. He said civilization demands “excessive” sexual repression. “We ought not to aim so high that we completely neglect the original animality of our nature.” He cautioned that it was not possible to “sublimate” all sexual impulses into cultural accomplishments.
To drive his point home, Freud closed with an analogy and recounted a folk tale about the foolish residents of Schilda. They owned a strong and productive horse with one flaw, its need for expensive oats. The thrifty citizens decided to gradually cut down its ration until the horse grew accustomed to “complete abstinence.” The plan of action went well until one day the townspeople woke up and found the horse had died. This perplexed them. Freud closed his last lecture and formal visit to the United States with the following sentence: “We are inclined to believe that the horse had died of starvation and that without a certain ration of oats, no work can indeed be expected from an animal.”
In the first rows of the audience sat Emma Goldman, the anarchist and sexual reformer, with her lover Ben Reitman. She was “deeply impressed” by Freud’s “lucidity” and “the simplicity of his delivery.” (She did not comment that he lectured in German.) She also attended the ceremony where Freud received an honorary degree. The other professors appeared “stiff and important in their university caps and gowns,” but Freud looked “unassuming” in his ordinary attire. She called him a “giant among pygmies.”
If he needed it, a reference from Emma Goldman could burnish Freud’s credentials as a sexual reformer. Yet an opening and incidental sentence to his five lectures may prove more prescient than his last: “I have discovered with satisfaction that the majority of my audience are not of the medical profession.” The observation seems trivial, but much turned on it. With virtually no success in the United States, Freud fought what might be called the monopolization of psychoanalysis by medical doctors. He wanted nonmedical or lay people to practice psychoanalysis, if they were properly trained. This was no minor issue to Freud. He distrusted the medical profession. He feared that doctors would turn psychoanalysis into a subfield, a narrow therapy. I do not “consider it at all desirable for psychoanalysis to be swallowed up by medicine,” he wrote, “and to find its last resting place in a textbook of psychiatry under the heading, ‘Methods of Treatment.'”
In fact, that more or less happened. American doctors banished lay practition-ers and made psychoanalysis into a medical speciality. For decades psychoanalysis prospered as psychiatrists embraced it, but more recently the doctors have moved on. Psychoanalysis was too slow, too expensive, too uncertain, and too unscientific. Along with academic psychologists, psychiatrists adopted chemical, behavioral, and pharmaceutical approaches.
But Freud did not defend psychoanalysis on the basis of its therapeutic effectiveness; he had other, perhaps more imperial ambitions. (“Somewhere in my soul,” he admitted, “I am a fanatical Jew.”) He wanted psychoanalysis to contribute to literature and culture, even reform society. He invoked the possibility of “combating the neuroses of civilization.” He wrote smaller and smaller books on bigger and bigger subjects, such as The Future of an Illusion (on religion) and Civilization and Its Discontents (on happiness and aggression).
This may be the “plague” that Freud brought to the New World: uninhibited thinking. To be sure, the molecular, genetic, or chemical perspective may be perfectly suitable for treating many ailments or behaviors. Yet the clamorous effort to rid the world of Freud is misguided. Psychology departments may relegate psychoanalysis to phrenology and other quackeries as they seek testable results, but Freud’s thought lives on in the humanities—or wherever scholars and students contemplate the vagaries of desire, morality, and religion. In the name of reason, Freud challenged the veneer of reason. He dug to uncover the forces that make us not only loving but also odd, hateful, and violent. Even when he was wrong, a boldness infused his thinking. He remains a tonic for a cautious age. The epigram that Freud chose for The Interpretation of Dreams—a line from Virgil—has not lost its appeal: “If I cannot bend the higher powers, I shall stir up hell.”
Russell Jacoby is a professor in residence in the history department at the University of California at Los Angeles. A columnist for The Chronicle Review, he is author, most recently, of Picture Imperfect: Utopian Thought for an Anti-Utopian Age (Columbia University Press, 2005).

Evaluación de aprendizajes: tres documentos del Banco mundial

El Banco Mundial ha publicado recientemente tres documentos sobre evaluación de aprendizajes que pueden obtenerse (en inglés) aquí:
El primer documento, “Assessing National Achievement Levels in Education,” explica los objetivos de la evaluación educativa y resume las características principales de la evaluación del logro escolar en nueve países.
El segundo ocumento, “Questionnaires for a National Assessment of Educational Achievement,” está dirigido a los equipos nacionales de evaluación educativa y explica las actividades involucradas en el desarrollo de pruebas de desempeño escolar.
Finalmente, el tercer documento, “Using the Results of a National Assessment of Educational Achievement,” se enfoca en cómo los países han usado los resultados de exámenes de rendimiento escolar para influir en la política y la reforma educativa.
Using the Results of a National Assessment of Educational Achievement (PDF, 1.7MB)
National Assessment of Educational Achievement – Volume V
Thomas Kellaghan, Vincent Greaney, T. Scott Murray. 2009
The book outlines general considerations in translating national assessment results into policy and action, and examines specific procedures for using the data in policy making, educational management, teaching, and promoting public awareness.
Developing Tests and Questionnaires for a National Assessment of Educational Achievement (PDF, 1.2MB)
National Assessment of Education Achievement Series – Volume II
Prue Anderson, George Morgan. Document Date: 2008
This book is the second in the series designed to help build capacity in carrying out technically adequate assessments of student achievement. It introduces readers to the activities involved in the development of achievement tests, and includes developing an assessment framework, writing multiple choice and constructed response type items, pretesting, producing test booklets, and handscoring items. A section on questionnaire construction features designing questionnaires, writing questions coding responses, and linking questionnaire and test score data, The final section covers the development of a test administration manual, selecting test administrators, and contacting samples schools. A companion CD contains examples of released items from national and international tests, sample questionnaires, and administrative manuals.
Assessing National Achievement Levels in Education (PDF, 1.4MB)
National Assessment of Education Achievement Series – Volume I
Vincent Greaney, Thomas Kellaghan. Document Date: 2/1/2008
Sound assessment of the performance of educational systems is a key component in developing policies to optimize the development of human capital around the world. Assessing National Achievement Levels in Education is one of a series of five books which introduce key concepts in national assessments of student achievement levels.

La visión de los industriales británicos sobre la universidad

cbi.gif Esta semana se dio a conocer el Informe Stronger together. Businesses and universities in turbulent times, preparado por el Grupo de Tarea sobre Educación Superior de la Confederación Británica de Industrias (CBI Higher Education Task Force). The CBI is the UK’s top business lobby organisation. Our specialist services and unmatched influence with government, policymakers, legislators, and unions mean we can get the best deal for business at home and abroad.
Bajar el Informe (54 pp.) pdfIcon_24.png 1,57 KB
Más abajo ver el comunicado de prensa de la CBI sobre el informe.
Foreword by Sam Laidlaw 04
Executive summary 05
1 What business wants from higher education 10
2 Now is a critical time to act 17
3 Why business must do more 21
4 Delivering business outcomes in tough financial times 31
5 How universities can do more for business 36
6 Ensuring students have the skills to succeed 44
Conclusion 49
HE Task Force members 50
Annex 51
References 52
The UK has a world class higher education sector. But it faces some urgent challenges including the changing needs of business, intensifying international competition and constrained public sector funding.
Effective collaboration between the higher education sector, business and government will be critical to the UK’s economic recovery and sustainable international competitiveness.
This report was prepared on behalf of business to offer recommendations on how business, the higher education sector and government can each contribute to ensuring:
• Future students have the best chance of success in an increasingly competitive world
• The capabilities of the higher education sector are fully utilised to equip our existing workforce with the skills necessary for today and tomorrow’s world
• Research and innovation partnerships between business and higher education have the best chance of success.
Although written from a business perspective, this report recognises that business is not the only stakeholder and that universities have a wider social role to fulfil. Equally all stakeholders, including government, have some difficult choices to make.
We were fortunate in having on this Task Force the vice-chancellors of three eminent universities, as well as business leaders from different sectors, representing both large and small employers.
While there may have been differences of emphasis among Task Force members, all have endorsed the content of this report and we hope the initiatives they have outlined will be followed by businesses across the country.
Members were unanimous that the challenges are real and urgent. Business has to step up to the challenge, as does the higher education sector, in providing highly employable graduates and value for money. Finally government must provide the incentives, framework and funding necessary for sustainable success.
Sam Laidlaw
Chairman, CBI Higher Education Task Force and CEO, Centrica plc

Continuar leyendo

Costo de la educación superior: ¿quién paga?

LogoElMercurio.gif Columna publicada en El Mercurio, página de Educación, domingo 27 septiembre 2009.
Costo de la educación superior: ¿quién paga?
José Joaquín Brunner
Suele destacarse, con razón, que Chile ostenta uno de los más altos índices de esfuerzo de los hogares para el financiamiento de la educación superior.
Efectivamente, mientras en nuestro país las familias y los estudiantes contribuyen con un 83% del gasto total en instituciones de educación terciaria, en los países miembros de la OCDE dicha cifra oscila entre 4% en Dinamarca y 53% en la República de Corea, sin superar un 20% en el promedio de estos países.
Una parte de la explicación radica en el bajísimo gasto público que se destina en Chile a la educación superior; apenas un 0,3% del PIB, siendo el gasto privado de un 1,4% del PIB. En cambio, en el promedio de la OCDE, dichas cifras son, respectivamente, 1% y 0,5%.
Vivimos pues en mundos diametralmente distintos. Una diferencia es la proporción de estudiantes matriculados en instituciones privadas sin subsidio estatal: un 14,2% en carreras técnico-vocacionales y un 13,7% en programas académico-profesionales dentro del mundo OCDE, por oposición a Chile donde las cifras correspondientes son 90% y 43%.
Otro contraste: en nuestro país también los estudiantes inscritos en instituciones con subsidio fiscal pagan un elevado precio, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en varios países de la OCDE, donde solamente pagan un mínimo en ese tipo de instituciones.
Dicho a la manera de los debates televisivos, estaríamos aquí frente a un mundo neoliberal donde la educación superior se compra, en oposición a otro fraternal y solidario donde ella se dona generosamente por el Estado.
La verdad es otra, sin embargo. Primero, el mundo gratuito de la educación terciaria se halla en retirada no sólo en Asia, Europa Central y del Este y los países ricos del Pacífico, sino también en el Reino Unido, los Países Bajos, Canadá y otros antiguos bastiones del Estado de bienestar.
Enseguida, la provisión fuertemente subsidiada de enseñanza terciaria, allí donde subsiste, se compensa con altas tasas impositivas para personas y empresas. Por ejemplo, en Dinamarca los ingresos tributarios recolectados por el gobierno representan un 36% del PIB; en Chile es apenas alrededor de un 20%.
Cabe preguntar, entonces, si acaso se justifica el extraordinario esfuerzo en que incurren las familias chilenas para financiar la educación superior de sus hijos. Todo parece confirmarlo.
Los jóvenes en posesión de un título se encuentran no sólo mejor protegidos de los vaivenes del desempleo y gozan de una serie de beneficios no-monetarios, sino que obtienen, además, un importante premio salarial en el mercado de trabajo.
En efecto, mientras en los países de la OCDE los graduados universitarios reciben en promedio remuneraciones 1,6 veces superiores a las que obtienen personas con educación media completa, en Chile dicha diferencia es de casi 4 veces según cifras recientes.
En suma, la educación superior es cara y en todas partes la financian, al final, los hogares. Pueden hacerlo directamente, por la vía de aranceles y otras tasas pagadas a las instituciones, o bien de manera indirecta, a través de los impuestos.
En Chile se ha optado por el primer camino. Sin embargo, la contribución de las familias y de los propios beneficiados se ha vuelto insostenible para la mayoría, a pesar de los esquemas de crédito estudiantil y de becas existentes. Éstos necesitan ser racionalizados y ampliados, para lo cual es imprescindible un mayor gasto fiscal.
El próximo gobierno deberá elegir entre aumentar dicho gasto por el camino de una mayor tributación o reasignando fondos públicos y empleándolos de manera más eficiente.
Recursos asociados en el Blog durante el mes de septiembre
La crisis alcanza a las universidades públicas más rica: Berkeley, 24 septiembre 2009
¿Por qué aumenta el precio de los estudios superiores?, 19 septie,bre 2009
Cómo ahorrar dineros del presupuesto universitario en tiempos de crisis, 12 septiembre 2009
Panorama de la Educación 2009: Indicadores de la OCDE, 9 septiembre 2009

Procesos de acreditación: información e indicadores. Un análisis de la literatura internacional.

En este documento (Borrador preliminar sólo para comentarios) de septiembre de 2009 (54 pp.), Judith Scheele, con la colaboración de José Joaquín Brunner, revisan la literatura internacional sobre el tema y ofrecen una síntesis de los principales tópicos abordados por ella.
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1. Características básicas de los sistemas de acreditación
1.1. Enfoques y metodologías
1.2. Criterios, estándares e indicadores
1.3. Evaluación y control de los procesos de acreditación
2. Aplicación práctica de sistemas de acreditación: ejemplos nacionales
2.1. Estados Unidos de América
2.2. Australia y Japón
2.3. Unión Europea
Anexo 1: Lista de indicadores claves de performance (ICPs)
Anexo 2: Ejemplo de un informe de meta-acreditación – Evaluación de la Agencia Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación de la Calidad, España
La acreditación como forma de asegurar la calidad de la educación superior existe hace más de veinte años con aplicación relativamente generalizada en los países desarrollados.
La mayoría de los países del mundo ha establecido procedimientos y sistemas de aseguramiento de la calidad. Los modelos tradicionales e informales de autorregulación académica –considerados durante siglos medios suficientemente efectivos para garantizar la calidad– fueron sustituidos por mecanismos formales de aseguramiento de la calidad que conllevan varios procedimientos externos de evaluación e inspección.
En este contexto, la noción de calidad se transformó en un instrumento imprescindible para la evaluación de programas e instituciones de educación superior, con efectos potencialmente decisivos (como la denegación de fondos públicos a las instituciones que no cumplen con los criterios de calidad) (Van Damme, 2004: 134-5).
Por medio de estándares formales los consejos (nacionales) de acreditación establecen el nivel mínimo de calidad –o en algunos casos el nivel de excelencia– que las instituciones de educación superior deben poseer para obtener el estatus de acreditadas. De esta manera, se puede distinguir entre instituciones y programas de estudio de buena calidad y aquellos que, según los criterios externos, no alcanzan el nivel mínimo de calidad.
Dados los continuos cambios y desarrollos en la educación terciaria –internacionalización, desregulación, autonomía creciente de las instituciones e intervención de mecanismos de mercado en el sector– la calidad se convierte en un criterio cada vez más importante para que gobiernos, estudiantes y académicos puedan determinar cuáles instituciones de educación superior merecen una preferencia. A su vez, la acreditación es el método por excelencia empleado para asegurar y estimular la calidad.
Este ensayo analiza la acreditación y los modelos de inspección y evaluación involucrados en ella. Primero, consideraremos las diferentes formas de acreditación con los correspondientes métodos de evaluación. En este marco se analizan también los estándares básicos de calidad, establecidos por los organismos de acreditación como benchmarks (inter)nacionales, y los indicadores que sirven para medir el desempeño de los programas e instituciones de educación superior.
Después, el segundo capítulo se centra en algunos ejemplos concretos de acreditación en países desarrollados. Examinando varios sistemas nacionales de acreditación, mostraremos las diferencias entre países en cuanto al enfoque y contenido de estos procesos.
Recursos asociados
Educación terciaria y mercado laboral: Formación profesional, empleo y empleabilidad. Revisión de la literatura internacional, 25 septiembre 2009
El aseguramiento de la calidad en la educación terciaria no universitaria. Un análisis del sector de educación terciaria no universitaria y sus mecanismos de evaluación en los países de la OCDE, 24 septiembre 2009
Formación de doctorado en ciencias e ingenierías en los países desarrollados: evoluciones recientes y perspectivas, 23 septiembre 2009