Archivo de la categoría: Educación

Seminario Internacional: La Formación Práctica en el Proceso de Aprender a Enseñar

logo5.gif Escuela de Psicología, Facultad de Filosofía y Educación, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
Noviembre 26 y 27, Viña del Mar
Programa
Jueves 26 Noviembre
8:30 – 9:00 Inscripción
9:00 – 9:15 Bienvenida
Dr. Nelson Vásquez Lara
Decano de la Facultad de Filosofía y Educación
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
Dra. Carmen Montecinos Sanhueza
Profesora de la Escuela de Psicología
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
9:15 – 9:30 “El Programa Inicia y los desafíos de la formación práctica en profesores de formación inicial”
Dra. Erika Castillo Barrientos
Directora del Programa Inicia. Ministerio de Educación
9:30 – 10:30 Ponencia: “Estudio de la formación práctica en 21 carreras de pedagogia”.
Carmen Montecinos Sanhueza, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
Inés Contreras Valenzuela, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Claudio Nuñez Vega, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Sylvia Rittershaussen Klaunig, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
María Cristina Solis Zañartu, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Horacio Walker Larraín, Universidad Diego Portales
10:30 – 11:00 Café
11:00 – 13:00
Panel. Utilización de los resultados de la investigación “El impacto de la formación práctica en el proceso de aprender a enseñar desde las diez universidades participantes”.
1. Qué resultados han sido más relevantes para el análisis de su formación práctica
2. Una propuesta de mejoramiento que surge de este análisis.
Universidad de Playa Ancha
Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de al Educación
Universidad Andrés Bello
Universidad Diego Portales
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Universidad de Concepción
Universidad del Bío Bío
Universidad de la Santísima Concepción
Universidad Católica de Temuco
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
13:00 – 14:30 Presentación del libro Las Muestras de Desempeño Docente: Un instrumento para evaluar la calidad de la enseñanza y su impacto en el aprendizaje. Editorial Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
Recepción
15:00 – 16:30 Ponencia La Práctica Docente como Currículo para la Formación Docente en los Establecimientos Educacionales
Dra. Marilyn Cochran Smith, Boston College, EEUU.
16:30 – 18:00 Ponencia Vinculación Universidad-Comunidad- Sistema Escolar para la Formación Inicial Docente
Dra. Christine Sleeter, California State University-Monterey Bay, EEUU
18:00 Café cierre del día
Viernes 27 de Noviembre
9:00 – 10:30 Ponencia De la Enseñanza a la Mentoría: Desarrollando Conocimientos para pasar de la enseñanza de niños y niñas a la mentoría de los estudiantes de pedagogía en la práctica profesional
Dra. Lily Orland-Barak , Universidad de Haifa, Israel
10:30 – 11:00 Café
11:00 – 12:30 Talleres
A. Sobre el currículo para la formación práctica facilitado por la Dra. Cochran-Smith
B. Sobre la vinculación sistema escolar facilitado por la Dra. Sleeter
C. Sobre la formación profesores mentores facilitado por la Dra. Orland-Barak
12:45 – 13:30 Plenario de Cierre
Dr. Avalos, Dra. Cochran-Smith, Dra. Orland-Barak y Dra. Sleeter
Moderador Dr. Claudio Nuñez
INFORMACION GENERAL
Lugar:
Jueves 26 Aula Media de la Facultad de Filosofía y Educación de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. Campus Sausalito. Avenida el Bosque 1290, Viña del Mar
Viernes 27 Aula Media de la Facultad de Filosofía y Educación de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. Campus Sausalito. Avenida el Bosque 1290, Viña del Mar
CONTACTOS
Teléfono: Nelson Vasquez L. 032- 2274398/ 2274353
Fax: 032- 2274359
Correo electrónico: decfiled@ucv.cl
nvasquez@ucv.cl
Teléfono: Silvia Rittershaussen K. 02- 6865399
Correo electrónico: sritters@uc.cl
Inscripción y participación Gratuita
Costo de la certificación: Académicos : 20.000 pesos
Estudiantes: 5.000 pesos
Patrocinado por: Vice Rectoría de Asuntos Docentes y Estudiantiles, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Facultad de Filosofía y Educación-PUCV, Fundación Andes, Centro de Investigación Avanzada en Educación (CIAE) y la Facultad de Educación, Universidad Diego Portales


Educación para el futuro: Políticas y prácticas – una visión desde la OCDE

oecd0709.gif Palabras del Secretario General de la OCDE, Angel Gurría, con ocasión de la mesa redonda de Ministros de Educación que tuvo lugar en la UNESCO, 10 octubre 2009.
Education for the future – Promoting changes in policies and practices: the way forward
Remarks by Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, delivered at the Education Ministerial Round Table, UNESCO
10 October 2009 – UNESCO, Paris, France
Director General, Madame Chair, Ministers, Ladies and Gentlemen, good morning:
I am pleased to be part of this session on “How to promote changes in policies and practices”, as this is one of the greatest challenges to improve education and the very essence of OECD work in this field. Thank you very much for the invitation. We have brought with us the ”highlights” of our yearly publication, “Education at a Glance”, as well as some very specific publications on, for example, “Education for students at risk and those with disabilities in the Baltics and South East Europe”, or “Green at Fifteen”.
The current financial and economic crisis is one of the biggest transformations of our lifetime. It is defining a tough new world. Thus, we need to revise our educational policies, to adapt them to such new reality where factors like high unemployment, growing inequalities, stronger competition, fewer jobs, enhanced interdependence, new business ethics, constant innovation and, if we get it right, “green growth” are becoming the new pointers for our societies of the future.
We therefore need to prepare for such a challenging future. This is where education comes in and becomes critical.
1. Rising skills: a first crucial target
We are currently facing the greatest job crisis of our lives. The average unemployment rate in the OECD area could approach 10% by 2010. Youth unemployment has soared to 20-30% in some countries. This figure translates into 57 million people out of a job in the OECD zone. The number of unemployed is even larger in developing countries, and is sometimes hard to track because of the phenomenon of informality.
Education and training are key elements to our response to this crisis. If we want to provide jobseekers with the re-employment assistance they require, and minimise long-term unemployment, we need to emphasize training.
As we documented in the most recent edition (the 29th) of our “Employment OutlooEmployment Outlook”, the job prospects for those with few qualifications are deteriorating rapidly in this crisis environment. Across OECD countries, over 40% of young people who have not completed secondary school are not employed. This is more than the double of the youth unemployment rate. Many of those who become unemployed stay unemployed for a long time. New graduates face serious difficulties in finding jobs and enterprises cut training opportunities in the vocational area. All because of the crisis.
And yet, we have powerful evidence that education is the key to addressing the economic and social challenges of our times, including a way to get out of the crisis faster. We continue to see rising economic and social benefits for those who are skilled, as well as deteriorating opportunities for those without adequate education.
We have made calculation on how worth it is for one to get higher education. It is enormously positive. Actually, there is a considerable earnings premium for people with degrees over their working lives, which averages now $186,000 across OECD countries. Even when you hold such benefits against what governments and individuals spend on education, the net public return from an investment in tertiary education is highly positive. For individuals, it pays to invest in education. You clearly have a very positive costs / benefits ratio.
You can look at the other side of the coin too: the economic loss imposed by poor educational performance might be even greater than the output shortfall in the current economic crisis. For example, if the United States had closed the gap regarding performing education systems such as Finland and Korea, GDP in 2008 could have been $1.3 trillion to $2.3 trillion higher (equivalent to 9 – 16% of GDP).
There is no doubt that education systems have responded to the rising demand for better skilled people. Indeed, the volume of educational activity has expanded at an unprecedented pace. University graduation rates doubling from 20% in 1995 to almost 40% in 2007, in the OECD area. In China and other emerging markets, the rate of expansion has been even faster.
Producing more of the same qualifications cannot be the answer when the nature of the skills that matter is changing too.
2. Education systems have to put greater emphasis on 21st Century skills
Our economic growth is increasingly driven by innovation, making skills obsolete at a much faster pace than before. This is why Ministers called upon the OECD to develop an Innovation Strategy that looks, among other things, at how education and training can develop the skills that matter for the world to come. They also more recently gave us a mandate to develop a Green Growth Strategy. Innovation and Green Growth clearly go hand in hand.
How can schools and universities prepare people for a world where work can be digitized, automated, outsourced and green?
The response lies in education. The key to success is no longer simply whether you can reproduce something you have learned, but whether you can extrapolate from what you know and apply your knowledge in a novel and changing setting. This shows that if students learn merely to memorise and reproduce knowledge and skills, they risk being prepared for jobs that are in fact disappearing. The problem is that this is precisely what many schools have focussed on for so many decades.
Of course, state-of-the-art skills in a field will always be important. Innovative and productive people generally have specialised skills. But there are other important competencies that education needs to focus on. Let me mention three:
First of all, in our schools, students typically learn individually and thus, at the end of the school year, we certify their individual achievements. But the more globalised and inter dependent the world becomes, the more we need great collaborators and orchestrators, not isolated individuals, no matter how well they do. We need to form people for a more inclusive world: people who can appreciate and build on different values, beliefs, cultures. Inter-personal competencies to produce inclusive solutions will be of growing importance.
Second, the conventional approach in school is often to break problems down into manageable bits and pieces and then teach students how to solve each one of these bits and pieces individually. But in modern economies, we create value by synthesising different fields of knowledge, making connections between ideas that previously seemed unrelated. That requires being familiar with and open and receptive to knowledge in other fields rather than our own field. But apart from Japan and perhaps the Nordic countries in Europe, there are few incentives for teachers to collaborate across disciplines.
Third, if we log on to the Internet today, we can find everything we are looking for. But the more content we can search and access, the more important it is to teach our students to sort and filter information. The search for relevance is very critical in the presence of abundance of information. We also need the capacity to explain content in one area to people working in other areas.
The 21st century schools therefore need to help young individuals to constantly adapt and grow, to develop their capacity and motivation, to expand their horizons and transfer and apply knowledge in novel settings.
This crisis is exposing the gaps in our education system. For example, nowadays people need a much better financial literacy. They need to be able to think in terms of scenarios, weigh risks and probabilities, and assess the short-term and long-term economic impact of today’s decisions.
Our relation to climate change is another example. Technological innovation and well-targeted policy instruments are essential. But ultimately, green growth will rely on people’s behaviour and on their own individual understanding of its social and environmental impact.
We can extend the list further but the point is that, whatever competencies are considered relevant for success in modern societies, our educational policies and our schools need to adapt to them but mostly, to provide them.
One important issue for example is that children nowadays don’t want to become scientists, they prefer to become football players or rock stars. We are running out of vocation, out of the future.
3. The importance of education reform: learning form each other
And thus, we must ask how efficiently are our educational policies adapting to the new global circumstances? Not very well, I should say. This is a key question for the future of our nations.
In OECD countries, political leaders have demonstrated a commitment to reforming education systems. But if we are to keep public policy credible, it is important to make sure that reforms actually do change policies and practices. And here is where we have some worries.
A growing body of evidence and statistics on education systems and outcomes ─ from sources like the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) ─ show that the goals of education reforms are not always materialising. There is a broad consensus on the goals but the degree of execution is not the same. But there are surprising gaps in our knowledge of how to make that happen. The political economy of reforms in the field of education is enormously difficult. Breaking the status quo is not easy.
Overcoming active resistance to change in educational policy is one of our central challenges. We have much to learn from each other to address this challenge.
At the OECD, we have been comparing the effectiveness of our educational policies and reforms for many years. These international comparisons have helped us identify our common challenges and best practices.
We have learned, for example, that teachers and school leaders are still not being systematically prepared to use performance measurement and diagnostic tools to identify students in difficulty and constructively address their learning needs. And they spend too much time in administration issues or in addressing discipline problems of individual students.
But we have also learned that change is possible: by shifting public concern away from the mere control over the resources and content of education toward a focus on outcomes; by moving from “hit and miss” policies to establishing universal high standards; by moving from uniformity to embracing diversity and individualising learning. And we have identified the best practices to produce these changes.
We have seen, for example, good success stories: like the Scottish government’s major reforms, earlier this decade, which started with an overhaul of the teachers training and salaries. Teachers then became advocates and agents of further reform.
We have seen countries like Mexico where the government recently embarked on a series of far-reaching reforms to curriculum, examinations, and teacher training, evaluation and certification, based on OECD benchmarks and exchange of best practices.
We have seen countries like Finland whose reforms focused on teachers’ selection, remuneration and standing in society, with the results that Finland always comes out at the top. There is usually a trade-off between teachers’ pay and the size of the classes, which requires a careful balancing act.
It is no longer enough for national education policy makers to gauge education improvement against their own past outcomes. They have to keep an eye on how much other countries are improving as well. This is the value of multilateral cooperation. This is why these international conferences are so important. This is why we will continue our fruitful collaboration with UNESCO to provide the cross-cutting policy expertise needed to support governments in addressing these challenges.
Dear Ministers, Ladies and Gentlemen:
We need to empower the future generations with new tools to produce a better world; to adapt our educational policies to a new, more competitive and globalized reality; to identify our leads and lags, compare our know-how and prepare to learn from each other through enhanced multilateral cooperation. Remember: “In times of change, learners inherit the Earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists.” May these words by Eric Hoffer stay in our minds as we try to prepare for the future. This is probably an exaggeration, as being learned is of great importance to become a learner.
I will close my speech by thanking Mr Matsura, with whom I had the privilege and satisfaction to work. I am proud of the work we shared with you. Together we have made a difference. I wish you good luck and present you my congratulations.
Thank you very much for your attention.


Evaluación de aprendizajes: tres documentos del Banco mundial

BcoMundial_edu.jpg
El Banco Mundial ha publicado recientemente tres documentos sobre evaluación de aprendizajes que pueden obtenerse (en inglés) aquí:
El primer documento, “Assessing National Achievement Levels in Education,” explica los objetivos de la evaluación educativa y resume las características principales de la evaluación del logro escolar en nueve países.
El segundo ocumento, “Questionnaires for a National Assessment of Educational Achievement,” está dirigido a los equipos nacionales de evaluación educativa y explica las actividades involucradas en el desarrollo de pruebas de desempeño escolar.
Finalmente, el tercer documento, “Using the Results of a National Assessment of Educational Achievement,” se enfoca en cómo los países han usado los resultados de exámenes de rendimiento escolar para influir en la política y la reforma educativa.
Using the Results of a National Assessment of Educational Achievement (PDF, 1.7MB)
National Assessment of Educational Achievement – Volume V
Thomas Kellaghan, Vincent Greaney, T. Scott Murray. 2009
The book outlines general considerations in translating national assessment results into policy and action, and examines specific procedures for using the data in policy making, educational management, teaching, and promoting public awareness.
Developing Tests and Questionnaires for a National Assessment of Educational Achievement (PDF, 1.2MB)
National Assessment of Education Achievement Series – Volume II
Prue Anderson, George Morgan. Document Date: 2008
This book is the second in the series designed to help build capacity in carrying out technically adequate assessments of student achievement. It introduces readers to the activities involved in the development of achievement tests, and includes developing an assessment framework, writing multiple choice and constructed response type items, pretesting, producing test booklets, and handscoring items. A section on questionnaire construction features designing questionnaires, writing questions coding responses, and linking questionnaire and test score data, The final section covers the development of a test administration manual, selecting test administrators, and contacting samples schools. A companion CD contains examples of released items from national and international tests, sample questionnaires, and administrative manuals.
Assessing National Achievement Levels in Education (PDF, 1.4MB)
National Assessment of Education Achievement Series – Volume I
Vincent Greaney, Thomas Kellaghan. Document Date: 2/1/2008
Sound assessment of the performance of educational systems is a key component in developing policies to optimize the development of human capital around the world. Assessing National Achievement Levels in Education is one of a series of five books which introduce key concepts in national assessments of student achievement levels.


Revista de Investigación Educativa

CPU-e.gif Se encuentra en circulalación el Nº 9 de la Revista de Investigación Educativa, julio-diciembre 2009, del Instituto de Investigaciones en Educación de la Univerisdad Veracruzana, México.
Contenido
Investigación
Educación y masculinidad en un Colegio técnico de la Patagonia argentina: el caso de los salesianos en Comodoro Rivadavia durante la primera mitad del siglo XX
Gabriel Carrizo
Diagnóstico de los estilos de aprendizaje en los estudiantes: Estrategia docente para elevar la calidad educativa
Maribel Aragón García y Yasmín Ivette Jiménez Galán
Crítica y opinión
Acerca del multiculturalismo, la educación intercultural y los derechos indígenas en las Américas
Érica González Apodaca
La toma de decisiones metodológicas en la investigación social: Un devenir entre la subjetividad y la objetividad
Mayra Margarito Gaspar
Práctica
Integración educativa: Visión de los docentes en cuatro escuelas venezolanas
Rosalinda Romero, Nerylena Inciarte, Odris González y Nelly García-Gavidia
Estudio comparativo de los resultados de aprendizaje en un curso de Autocad básico, entre estudiantes que recibieron el curso en línea o presencial
Reyna Godos García, Juan Gabriel Nolasco Trujillo, José Enrique Díaz Camacho y Mario Miguel Ojeda Ramírez
Reseñas
Elementos de contexto para pensar la escuela
Jessica Badillo Guzmán
Theatres of Memory
Fernando Calonge Reíllo
Acceso a los artículos aquí.


Modalidades internacionales de colaboración en programas de posgrado

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Artículo aparecido recientemente en el Chronicle of Higher Education sobre uno de los temas cruciales para el futuro desarrollo de los estudios de posgrado en Chile.
American Graduate Programs With Overseas Partners Are on the Rise
By Aisha Labi, The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 20, 2009
American universities may still lead the world when it comes to the sheer number of students they attract. But in another measure of internationalization, Europe fares far better.
At the annual meeting of the European Association for International Education here last week, many educators focused on the booming field of international joint-degree and dual-degree programs.
In the European Union, both joint and dual degrees are increasingly common. Universities see them as an effective way to offer their students an international experience, expand their research partnerships, and tap into financing sources that promote such joint ventures. Interest is rising in the United States as well, presenters said, for many of the same reasons.
Debra W. Stewart, president of the Council of Graduate Schools, who chaired a panel on best practices for joint- and dual-degree programs, said that such programs have been slow to catch on at American institutions, but that the tide is quickly turning.
In a 2007 survey, one-third of the council’s member institutions, which are primarily in the United States and Canada, reported that they had joint- or dual-degree programs. A year later, the tally had risen to half.
At the conference, the council unveiled the results of a new survey of joint and dual degrees at American graduate schools, which highlighted the growing interest in these programs as well as the challenges involved in setting them up.
“There is lots of enthusiasm around pursuing growth in these areas,” Ms. Stewart said.
Joint-degree programs offer graduates a single diploma, awarded for work at two more institutions. A dual, or double, degree is one in which students receive separate diplomas from each of the participating institutions. Many institutions prefer dual degrees because they are administratively easier to set up than joint degrees.
In both Europe and the United States, the majority of these collaborative programs at the master’s level are in engineering and business, while at the doctoral level, the physical sciences and engineering are the most common fields for formal collaboration.
“The greatest opportunities for these programs are to capitalize on those disciplines where the cutting-edge research depends on international collaboration,” said Daniel Denecke, director of best practices at the Council of Graduate Schools.
A report published this year by the Institute of International Education and the Free University of Berlin said both European and American universities are more likely to have collaborative degree programs with European partners than with institutions in other parts of the world.
Cash Infusion
Several European university officials who have been involved in establishing joint- and dual-degree programs credit their growth to the European Union’s Erasmus Mundus program, started in 2004, which provides financial support to universities to set up institutional collaborations as well as partnerships with non-European universities.
Last year the program was expanded to include doctoral as well as master’s-degree programs, and its budget quadrupled. The addition of doctoral programs was intended to help retain non-European graduate students who were leaving Europe for the United States to pursue their Ph.D.’s after completing their Erasmus Mundus master’s degrees.
The Bologna Process, through which 46 European nations are harmonizing their degree systems, has also helped facilitate inter-European collaboration. One of the greatest challenges to setting up joint- and dual-degree programs, those involved say, is trying to assess and compare course work across institutions. Bologna has made that first step much easier.
In Norway, a non-European Union nation awash in oil money, international collaborations have also been motivated by development goals and a commitment to stem the exodus of talent from the developing world. At a conference session on the different types of joint- and dual-degree programs, Unni Kvernhusvik, a coordinator of joint programs at the University of Bergen’s Centre for International Health, talked of her institution’s experience with research-based joint-degree programs in Nepal and Tanzania. Like any partnership, including those the university has in Europe, she said, their success is founded on sustained, long-term collaboration.
“You have to know your partners well and know that they can give added value to what you have, and together this will make a program of excellence for a joint degree,” she said.
Increasing American Interest
Joint and dual degrees are likely to become more common in the United States as American universities look to internationalize their academic offerings in a cost-effective way. Many of the degree programs that American institutions operate with European counterparts have been supported by the Atlantis Program, a U.S.-E.U. collaborative.
The Council of Graduate Schools’ new research found several reasons for the growing enthusiasm for pursuing formal international-degree collaborations. These include declining interest among American graduate students in science and engineering degrees and increasing reliance on international students to fill these programs; international recognition that graduate education is a crucial component of economic-competitiveness strategy; and indications that, with growing competition from European and other countries for international graduate students, American universities can no longer count on a guaranteed steady stream of foreign graduate students to come to the United States to fill their programs.
At a session focusing on American projects in Europe, H. Stephen Straight, senior adviser for international initiatives at Binghamton University, in the State University of New York system, talked about an undergraduate program it has under way in Turkey.
SUNY has an extensive partnership with a consortium of universities in Turkey that allows Turkish students to spend two alternating years at SUNY. The undergraduate dual-degree program, designed to deal with a severe lack of capacity in the Turkish system, allows some 150 Turkish students a year to be “offloaded” into the SUNY system, said Mr. Straight.
“We get a flow of interesting students, with the intellectual creativity that brings, and out-of-state tuition for two solid years from them,” he said. “Cynics would say we’re doing it for the money, but frankly, for the dollars spent on getting the program up and running and keeping it up and running, we would do much better just recruiting students for the full four years.”
Like many formal institutional collaborations, SUNY’s Turkish connection originated through personal links—between the former director of the Turkish higher-education council and a SUNY official. Sustaining such programs, several presenters emphasized, requires full support from the administrative hierarchy of participating institutions as well as enthusiasm among students and professors.
Major Hurdles
The logistical hurdles and costs involved in setting up formal degree collaborations can be daunting. Even among European institutions, legal issues can provide some of the biggest obstacles.
In the Netherlands, for example, legislation prohibits joint degrees but allows dual degrees. Tuition policies also differ widely among nations, and administrators may run up against legislation saying that degrees cannot be awarded unless students pay local university fees, even if institutions have worked out fee waivers.
For American institutions, which usually charge much higher tuition than their European counterparts, deciding on a fee structure for formal degree collaborations is among the biggest hurdles they face in establishing and maintaining joint- and dual-degree programs with international partners, the new Council of Graduate Schools study found. Other major challenges include sustaining such programs over the long term, securing adequate financing, recruiting students to take part in such programs, and getting formal accreditation.
The council will publish the results of its latest survey in January. Ms. Stewart said she hopes the findings will help provide guidance on best practices for the growing number of American institutions seeking to establish formal degree collaborations with their international counterparts.
Copyright 2009. All Rights reserved


Chile y Brasil: Formación de políticas educacionales bajo la inspiración de gobiernos social demócratas (Tesis de doctorado de G. Burton)

LSE0909.jpg Texto de la tesis de Guy Burton para optar al grado de doctor en el london School of Economics: Social democracy in Latin America: Policymakers and education reform in Brazil and Chile, London, January 2009, (pp. 307).
Bajar texto de la tesis aquípdfIcon_24.png 1,62 MB
Abstract
What is social democracy in the Latin American and what has been its impact on public policy? I argue that it is a government’s origins and its use of the state and related institutions that shape the nature and content of social democracy. To illustrate this, three cases using governments and their approach to educational policy to 2007 are presented: the Concertación (since 1990) in Chile and the Cardoso (1995-2002) and Lula (since 2003) governments in Brazil.
The first part situates social democracy within the Latin American context. First, social democracy is defined ideologically and sociologically in relation to the wider Left-Right divide. Second, social democracy is distinguished between two models: the Third Way (which is more tolerant of inequality resulting from difference, the market and less associated with class concerns) and the Participatory Left (which has deeper roots in socialist ideology, state intervention and social movements). The section establishes that despite differences between each, Third Way and
Participatory Left social democrats adopt elite-based policymaking in government.
The second part analyses the impact of Third Way and Participatory Left social democracy on public (education) policy. The findings reveal broadly similar policy approaches, including a broader role for the state, curricular reform within the prevailing economic/education paradigm; increased (targeted) public spending; extensive use of evaluation/assessment mechanisms; and adoption of more representative means of participation with (organised) stakeholders. At the same time, policy content and relations with particular stakeholders (i.e. private interests, teachers and students) was also shaped by the institutional constraints and historical contexts faced by each government.
Índice
1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………………………..11
2. LATIN AMERICAN SOCIAL DEMOCRACY: THIRD WAY AND PARTICIPATORY
LEFTS IN BRAZIL AND CHILE……………………………………………………………………………………..31
3. ENGINEERING ELITES: ACCOUNTING FOR THE NATURE OF GOVERNMENTAL
POLICYMAKING IN EDUCATION IN BRAZIL AND CHILE………………………………………..55
4. FINDING THE RIGHT BALANCE: THE ROLE OF THE STATE AND SOCIAL
DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS…………………………………………………………………………………..77
5. THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION: SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC OBJECTIVES AND
CURRICULAR REFORM………………………………………………………………………………………………..96
6. SPENDING MORE?: PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION AND SOCIAL
DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS…………………………………………………………………………………116
7. MAKING US ALL MANAGERS?: THE USE OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
BY SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS…………………………………………………………….143
8. NO PARTICIPATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION: SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC
GOVERNMENTS AND PARTICIPATION IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR…………………160
9. A COMPROMISED POSITION: PRIVATE INTERESTS AND SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC
GOVERNMENTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….182
10. LOBBYING FROM THE LEFT: TEACHERS AND SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC
GOVERNMENTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….202
11. AN UNEQUAL RELATIONSHIP: STUDENTS AND SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC
GOVERNMENTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….226
12. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………244


Aumentan postulantes para ser profesor de Enseña Chile

Chile_ensena.jpg Circula el siguiente comunicado de Enseña Chile que da cuenta de la exitosa convocatoria para profesionales de diferentes disciplinas y carreras que desean dedicar los próximos años a labores docentes en colegios subvencionados. No parece necesario resaltar la enorme importancia de esta iniciativa.
Aumentan postulantes para ser profesor de Enseña Chile
Con más de 2600 interesados para los 60 cupos disponibles concluyó la primera etapa de selección para formar parte de la generación de profesores Enseña Chile 2010.
Durante los próximos meses, los postulantes serán parte de un riguroso proceso de selección para identificar a los mejores candidatos
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Santiago, 15 de septiembre de 2009.- Superando todas las expectativas, concluyó el proceso de postulación para ser profesor de Enseña Chile a partir de 2010. Más de 2.600 jóvenes profesionales se inscribieron a través del sitio web de la institución, 704 de los cuales completaron su postulación para hacer clases en los colegios más vulnerables de Chile por dos años a tiempo completo.
Para el período 2010-2011, Enseña Chile busca incorporar a 60 nuevos profesionales de excelencia para que se desempeñen como profesores en colegios vulnerables que no cuentan con docentes de especialidad. De este modo, Enseña Chile aspira a disminuir la brecha educacional que existe en Chile desde la sala de clases, motivando y reforzando el aprendizaje de los alumnos.
Durante los próximos meses, los postulantes serán parte de un riguroso proceso de selección para identificar a los mejores candidatos. Los seleccionados recibirán un completo entrenamiento y apoyo continuo para enfrentar el desafío.
Para Tomás Recart, director ejecutivo de Enseña Chile, la exitosa convocatoria es reflejo de los buenos resultados del proyecto –que en su primer año ya cuenta con 25 profesionales enseñando a tiempo completo en colegios vulnerables de la Región Metropolitana, Región de la Araucanía y la Región de los Ríos-, del enorme potencial de la iniciativa y de inquietud de los jóvenes por terminar con la desigualdad de oportunidades.
“El interés demostrado y la cantidad de postulaciones que tuvimos este año, demuestra que los chilenos sí están comprometidos, que sí quieren aportar desde la acción para mejorar el sistema educacional de nuestro país”, explica con entusiasmo Recart.
Enseña Chile selecciona, forma y acompaña a jóvenes líderes, de todas las disciplinas, para que trabajen por dos años como profesores tiempo completo en colegios vulnerables del país. De este modo, busca transformar la sala de clases desde la acción, mejorando el aprendizaje de los niños y comprometiendo a los mejores profesionales del país con el cambio del sistema educacional.
Cabe señalar que en el primer proceso de postulación, en 2008, se inscribieron más de 700 jóvenes, 320 de los cuales completaron su inscripción.
En el año 2010, se abrirán 100 nuevas vacantes para que más jóvenes profesionales se comprometan como profesores de Enseña Chile para que un día todos los niños en Chile reciban educación de calidad.
Más información sobre Enseña Chile a continuación.

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